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Birth Control

Barrier Methods of Birth Control:

What exactly are barrier methods of birth control?

Barrier methods of birth control act as barriers to keep the male’s sperm from reaching the female’s egg. Some barrier methods can also protect you against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A few barrier methods such as spermicide, condom, and sponge can be bought in most pharmacies. Others (diaphragm and cervical cap) must be prescribed by a healthcare professional.

How effective can be the barrier methods of birth control in preventing pregnancy?

Barrier methods are not as effective at preventing pregnancy as other birth control methods, such as the birth control implant, injection, or intrauterine device. Almost 25% women per year will become pregnant when using barrier methods. They work best when they are used correctly every time when you have sex . One act of sex without using a barrier method can result in pregnancy. If your barrier method breaks or becomes dislodged during sex, or if you forget or are unable to use it, the better you want to consider using emergency contraception.

What is spermicide and how do I use it?

Spermicide is a chemical that inactivates sperm. Most spermicides in the United States contain a chemical called nonoxynol-9. Spermicide which can be used alone or with all the other barrier methods except the sponge, which already contains a spermicide. Spermicide comes in different forms, including foams, creams, gels, suppositories, and films.
When used alone, a spermicide should be inserted into the vagina close to the cervix. After inserting you need to wait around 15 minutes after insertion for the spermicide to become effective. Read the label carefully to see how long before sex you need to insert the spermicide into your vagina. Remember that spermicides are effective for only 1 hour after they are inserted into the vagina . You must reinsert spermicide for each act of sex separately . Do not douche or try to remove the spermicide for at least 6 hours after insertion.

What are the benefits, risks, and side effects of using spermicide?

Benefits:

  • Spermicides are easy to use and easily available to buy in many pharmacies.
  • Spermicides have no effect on a woman’s natural hormones.
  • Spermicides cost less than other birth control methods.
  • If you are breastfeeding Spermicides do not affect milk supply.

Possible risks and side effects of Spermicides :

  • They can cause vaginal burning and irritation . Some people are allergic to spermicide and may have a some reaction.
  • Spermicides that contain nonoxynol-9 does not protect against STIs, which is including infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and may alos increase the risk of getting HIV from an infected partner if used many times a day. Spermicides should be only used if you have only one sexual partner and both of you are at low risk of HIV infection.

What are condoms and how do I use condoms?

A condom acts as a physical barrier that prevents sperm from entering the uterus and reaching an egg. Two types are available:

  • A male condom is a thin sheath made of latex (rubber), polyurethane (plastic), or natural (animal) membrane that is worn over the erect penis(male sex organ) during sexual intercourse. Latex and polyurethane condoms provide the protection against many STIs, including HIV.
  • A female condom is a thin plastic pouch that lines the vagina. It is held in place by a closed inner ring at the cervix and an outer ring at the opening of the vagina. It also provides some protection against STIs.
  • Using both methods such as a condom and a spermicide, is the best way to protect against pregnancy and STIs. Condoms should be used with a lubricant to prevent them from tearing or breaking during the intercourse and to reduce irritation. Use only water based or silicone lubricants with latex condoms, and do not use a male and female condom together.

What are the benefits, risks, and side effects of using condoms?

Benefits:

  • Condoms cost less than other birth control methods and can be bought in many stores.
  • They can be used immediately after the childbirth. They do not affect milk supply if you are breastfeeding.
  • They have no effect on a woman’s natural hormones.
  • Latex and polyurethane condoms provide the best available protection against STIs.
  • The female condom can be inserted up to 8 hours before sex.

Possible risks and side effects:

  • Some people might be allergic to latex or polyurethane may have a reaction.

What is diaphragm and how do I use it?

The diaphragm is a small dome shaped device made of silicone or latex that fits inside the vagina and covers the cervix. It must be used with spermicide. There are two types of diaphragms:

1) individually sized diaphragm, which must be fitted by a healthcare professional, and 2) onesize diaphragm, which fits most but not all women. Neither protect against STIs, including HIV. You should wait 6 weeks after giving birth to use a diaphragm, l the uterus and cervix return to normal size around 6 weeks.
The diaphragm must remain in place for 6 hours after sex, but for not more than 24 hours total. If you have sex again within this time frame,then apply more spermicide without removing the diaphragm. You then need to wait another 6 hours before taking out the diaphragm.

What are the benefits, risks, and side effects of using the diaphragm?

Benefits:

  • It does not affect milk supply if you are breastfeeding.
  • It has no effect on a woman’s natural hormones.
  • It can be inserted hours before sex. For the exact number of hours, read your diaphragm’s instructions.

Possible risks and side effects:

Because of spermicide used with the diaphragm can increase the risk of getting HIV from an infected partner, you should use the diaphragm only if you have one sexual partner or both are at low risk of HIV infection.
Use of the diaphragm and spermicide may cause vaginal burning and irritation.

Some people are allergic to spermicide or latex and may have a reaction.
Use of a diaphragm and spermicide may increase the risk of urinary tract infection.
Toxic shock syndrome has occurred from using diaphragm. To reduce the risk of TSS, do not leave the diaphragm inside for more than 24 hours.

What is sterilization?

Sterilization is a permanent method of birth control. It is the most popular form of birth control .

What is the sterilization procedure for women?

Tubal sterilization is sterilization for women. In tubal sterilization, the fallopian tubes are removed or cut and tied with special thread, closed shut with bands or clips, sealed with an electric current, or blocked with scar tissue formed by small implants. Tubal sterilization prevents the sperm from reaching the egg to fertilize.

How is tubal sterilization done?

Tubal sterilization can be performed in different ways with a laparoscopy ,minilaparotomy or hysteroscopy.

How effective is laparoscopic sterilization in preventing pregnancy?

  • Laparoscopic sterilization is highly effective depending on how the fallopian tubes are closed, within 10 years after having the procedure pregnancy rates range from 18 to 37 out of 1,000 women

Does tubal sterilization protect against sexually transmitted infections?

  • Tubal sterilization does not protect against sexually transmitted infections(STI), including human immunodeficiency virus . Women at risk of sexually transmitted diseases should also use a male or female condom to protect against these infections.

How is laparoscopic sterilization performed?

In laparoscopy sterilization , an instrument called a laparoscope is inserted through a small incision made in or near the navel. Another small incision made for an instrument to close off or remove the fallopian tubes. The fallopian tubes can be closed off by bands or clips. They also can be cut and closed with a special thread or sealed with an electric current. The laparoscope then is withdrawn and the . incisions are closed with stitches or special tape.

What are the risks associated with laparoscopic sterilization?

Sterilization done by laparoscopy has a low risk of complications. The most common complications are those related to general anesthesia. There is a risk of injury to the bladder,bowel or a major blood vessel. If an electric current is used to seal the fallopian tubes,then there is a risk of burn injury to the skin or bowel. Other risks include bleeding and infection from incisions .
Pregnancy is rare after sterilization. If pregnancy does occur, the risk of an ectopic pregnancy is higher than in women who does not had sterilization.

What are the benefits of laparoscopic sterilization?

Laparoscopy has few benefits over minilaparotomy. Recovery usually is more quicker with fewer complications. It usually is performed as outpatient surgery, means that you can go home the same day. It has some benefits over hysteroscopic sterilization as well. Unlike hysteroscopic sterilization, laparoscopic sterilization is effective right away.

What should I expect after having laparoscopic sterilization?

After surgery, you will be observed for a short time to make sure that there are no problems. Most women can go home 2–4 hours after the procedure. You will need someone to take you home.

You may feel some discomfort or have other symptoms that last a few days:

  • Dizziness
  • Shoulder pain
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Gassy or bloated feeling

Sore throat (from the breathing tube if general anesthesia was used)
Most women return to their normal routines within 1 week of surgery.

What should I consider when choosing a sterilization method?

Deciding on a method of sterilization involves considering the following factors:

  • Personal choice
  • Medical history
  • Physical factors, such as weight
  • Sometimes previous surgery, obesity, or other conditions may affect which method can be used.

When should sterilization be avoided?

You should avoid making this choice during times of stress such as during a divorce or after losing a pregnancy.. It should be a choice under pressure from a partner or others.

What if I decide I want to become pregnant after I have laparoscopic sterilization?

If you choose to have sterilization and change your mind after the operation, the attempts to reverse it may not work. After tubal sterilization is reversed, many women still are won’t be able to get pregnant. Also, the risk of ectopic pregnancy is increased.

What are some alternatives to sterilization?

Long-acting reversible contraception such as the intrauterine device(IUD) or implant, last for several years. They are as effective at preventing pregnancy as sterilization. They can be removed at any time if you want to become pregnant.

What is emergency contraception (EC)?

Emergency contraception (EC) reduces the chance of pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. Common situations in which EC could be used includes , forgetting to take birth control pills in a row, having a condom break , or not using a birth control method during sex. It can also be used after a woman has been raped.

How does EC work?

EC does not cause an abortion. An abortion ends an existing pregnancy but EC prevents pregnancy from occurring. EC must be used soon after unprotected sexual intercourse to be effective. EC does not work if pregnancy has already occurred.

What are the different types of Emergency Contraception?

There are two main types of EC the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and Emergency Contraceptive pills. There are three types of EC pills: ulipristal, progestin-only pills and combined EC pills. Some EC pills can be bought over the counter without a prescription.

What is the most effective form of EC?

The copper IUD has been the most effective form of EC. When taken as directed, the ulipristal is the most effective type of EC pill, followed by progestin-only pill. Combined EC pills are not as effective in preventing pregnancy as the other EC pills.

How does the copper IUD work?

The copper IUD (ParaGard) works by making sperm less able to fertilize the egg. IUD is the most effective EC method in preventing pregnancy. When used as EC, the copper IUD should be inserted within 5 days of having unprotected sex, then you can rely on the copper IUD for long-term birth control ( up to 10 years). If you wish to become pregnant You can have the IUD removed at any time .
A health care professional must insert the IUD. You can call your gynecologist or go to a family planning clinic to have the IUD inserted.

What are the side effects of using the copper IUD?

With use of copper IUD, menstrual pain and bleeding may increase in the first few months . Pain can be relieved with over-the-counter pain relievers. Heavy bleeding sometimes can be treated with a medication. Both the side effects usually decrease within 1 year of using the copper IUD.

How do Emergency Contraception pills work?

  • Progestin-only EC—This is a single pill that should be taken as soon as possible after having unprotected sex. Progestin is a hormone in birth control pills and other forms of hormonal birth control. It stops or delays ovulation to prevent pregnancy. It is most effective when taken within 3 days of unprotected sex. It is moderately effective if taken within 5 days. This pill is available without prescription to anyone of any age. It can be found in pharmacy usually in the family planning section. Brand names of these pills are Plan B ,One-Step, My Way, Next Choice One Dose, Take Action, and Aftera.
  • Ulipristal—This medication affects how progesterone works in the body. It is thought to delay or prevent ovulation. It can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex with same effectiveness. When taken as directed, ulipristal is more effective in preventing pregnancy than other EC pills.. It is available by prescription only.
  • Combined birth control pills—Birth control pills that contain both estrogen and progestin are called combined hormonal birth control pills. Taken in higher-than-usual amounts, they can be used for EC. You need to take combined EC pills as soon as possible up to 5 days after having unprotected sex. They work by delaying ovulation. They are taken in two doses. The number of pills needed for EC differs for each brand of pill.

How often can I use Emergency Contraception pills?

EC pills can be used more than once during a single menstrual cycle, but you should not rely on EC pills as a long-term birth control method. EC pills are not as effective in preventing pregnancy as using a birth control method consistently . There may be more side effects from frequent use of EC than from use of a standard birth control method.

What are the possible side effects of taking Emergency Contraception pills?

EC pills have not shown to cause any serious complications. Your next period might not occur at the expected time. You may have irregular bleeding or spotting in the week or month after taking EC pills which goes away on its own.

Other short-term side effects of EC pills are:

  • Nausea and vomiting (especially if you are taking combined EC pills)
  • Headache
  • Breast tenderness
  • Abdominal pain
  • Dizziness
  • Fatigue

Is there anything that decreases the effectiveness of Emergency Contraception pills?
Being obese or overweight may decrease the effectiveness of EC pills. you may want to consider having a copper IUD inserted. Copper IUDs are effective in all women of any weight.

How can I get Emergency Contraception (EC) as soon as possible?

  • The progestin-only pill is available over the counter in any pharmacies and other stores to anyone of any age. The progestin-only pill usually can be found in the family planning section of pharmacy. Not all stores carry the over-the-counter EC pill, so it is best to confirm ahead .You can buy EC pills ahead of time so that you always have them if needed, . Many pharmacies offer online ordering and shipping services.
  • Ulipristal , combined birth control pills, and copper IUD are available only by prescription. To get a prescription or to have the copper IUD inserted, you have to call your gynecologist or other health care professional . You also can ask your gynecologist or other health care professional to give you a prescription for these EC methods at any routine health care visit. That way, you are always prepared if you need to use them .

How do I start or resume using a birth control method after taking EC pills?
How you start or resume birth control after using EC pills depends on which type of EC pills you used:

  • If you used the progestin-only pill or combined EC pills, you can resume or start any birth control method right away. For the next 7 days, you must also use a barrier method such as condoms, diaphragm, and spermicides along with your regular birth control method or do not have sexual intercourse.
  • If you used ulipristal and want to resume or start using a hormonal birth control method such as pill, patch, ring, implant or hormonal IUD, you need to wait until 5 days after taking ulipristal. You also must use a barrier method (or do not have sexual intercourse) until your next menstrual period. Using a hormonal birth control method and taking ulipristal both at the same time can reduce the effectiveness of both medications.

Do I need follow-up care after using EC?

No tests or procedures needed after taking EC. You should have a pregnancy test if you have not had a period within a week of expecting it . None of the EC pills have been shown to harm a pregnancy or health of the baby if you already are pregnant.
Keep in mind that EC does not prevent sexually transmitted infections(STI). If you are at risk of getting a sexually transmitted infection and have had unprotected sex,then see your gynecologist or other health care professional.

What are long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods?

Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods include the intrauterine device (IUD) and the birth control implant. Both methods are highly effective in preventing pregnancy, last for several years, and are easy to use. Both are reversible—if you want to become pregnant or if you want to stop using them, you can have them removed at any time.

How effective are the LARC methods?

  • The IUD and implant are the most effective forms of reversible birth control available. During the first year of typical use, pregnancy rate is fewer than 1 in 100 women using an IUD or an implant . This rate is almost same range as that for sterilization.
  • How do LARC methods compare with any other methods of contraception?
    Over the long term, LARC methods are 20 times more effective than birth control pills, the patch, or the ring.

What is the intrauterine device (IUD)?

The IUD is a small, T-shaped plastic device that is inserted into the uterus. There are two types of IUDs:

  • The hormonal IUD releases progestin.it is approved for use from 3 to 5 years
  • The copper IUD does not contain hormones and It is approved for use for up to 10 years.

How does the IUD work?

Both types of IUDs mainly work by preventing fertilization of the egg by the sperm. The hormonal IUDs also work by thickening cervical mucus, which makes it harder for sperm to enter the uterus and fertilize the egg, and keep the lining of the uterus thin, which makes it less likely that a fertilized egg will attach to it.

What are the benefits of the IUD?

The IUD has the following benefits:

  • Once it is in place, you do not have to do anything else to prevent pregnancy.
  • It does not interfere with sex or daily activities.
  • No one can tell that you are using birth control.
  • It can be inserted immediately after an, a miscarriage, abortion or childbirth and while breastfeeding.
  • Almost all women are able to use an IUD.
  • If you wish to become pregnant or if you want to stop using it, you can simply have the IUD removed.
  • The hormonal IUD also helps decrease the menstrual pain and heavy menstrual bleeding.
  • The copper IUD is the most effective form of emergency contraception.

How is the IUD inserted?

A health care professional must insert and remove the IUD. He or she will review your medical history and will perform a pelvic exam. To insert the IUD, the IUD is placed in a slender plastic tube and the tube is inserted into the vagina and it is guided through the cervix into the uterus. The tube is withdrawn,which leaves the IUD in place.

Will I feel anything when the IUD is inserted?

Insertion of the IUD may cause some discomfort. Taking pain relief medication over-the-counter before the procedure may help. The IUD has a string made of thin plastic threads. After the insertion, strings are trimmed so that 1–2 inches extend past the cervix into your vagina. The strings must not bother you.

What are possible side effects of use of the IUD?

With copper IUD menstrual pain and bleeding may increase at initially and Bleeding between periods may occur. Both effects are common in the first few months of IUD use. Pain and heavy bleeding usually decreases within 1 year of use.
The hormonal IUDs may cause spotting and irregular bleeding in the first 4–6 months of use. The amount of menstrual bleeding and the length of the menstrual period usually decrease after period of time. Menstrual pain also usually decreases. A few women also may have side effects related to the hormones in these IUDs. These side effects may include headaches, nausea, depression, and breast tenderness.

What are possible risks of use of the IUD?

  • Serious complications are rare from use of an IUD . However, some women do have problems with IUD. These problems usually happen during the insertion or soon after insertion:
  • The IUD may come out of uterus. This happens in about 5% of users in the first year of using IUD.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of uterus and the fallopian tubes . PID may cause scarring of reproductive organs, which may make it difficult to become pregnant later. The risk of PID is slightly increased in the first 20 days after the insertion of an IUD, but the overall risk still is low (fewer than 1 in 100 women).
  • The IUD can perforate ( pierce) the wall of the uterus during insertion. It is rare and occurs in only about 1 in 1,000 insertions.
  • Very rarely, pregnancy may occur while a woman is using an IUD.
  • In the rare case if a pregnancy occurs with the IUD in place the there is a high chance that it will be an ectopic pregnancy.

What are combined hormonal birth control methods?

Birth control patch ,Birth control pills , and the vaginal ring are combined hormonal birth control methods. They contain two hormones and progestin.

How do combined hormonal methods prevent pregnancy?

Combined hormonal birth control methods release estrogen and progestin into the whole body. These hormones mainly by stopping ovulation ( release of an egg from one of the ovaries) prevent the pregnancy . They also cause other changes in the body that help prevent pregnancy and mucus in the cervix thickens making it hard for sperm to enter the uterus. Also The lining of the uterus thins out , making it less likely that a fertilized egg can attach to it.

How effective are combined hormonal birth control methods?

Typical use meaning that the method may not always be used consistently or correctly—9 out of 100 (9%)women will become pregnant during the first year of using these methods. With perfect use—meaning that the method is used consistently and correctly each time , less than 1 woman out of 100 will become pregnant during the first year.

What are the benefits of combined hormonal methods?

Combined hormonal methods also have several benefits in addition to protecting against pregnancy:

  • They may make your period more, lighter, regular and shorter.
  • They decrease the risk of cancer of the ovary, colon and uterus
  • They help reduce menstrual cramps.
  • They may improve acne and reduce unwanted hair growth.
  • They can be used to treat certain disorders that will cause heavy bleeding and menstrual pain, such as fibroids and endometriosis.

Used continuously, they can reduce the frequency of migraines associated with menstruation (although they should not be used if you have migraines with aura). They also can be used to treat heavy bleeding and pain by stopping the menstrual period.

What are the possible risks of combined hormonal methods?

  • Combined hormonal methods are safe for most of the women, but they are associated with a small risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), heart attack, and stroke. The risk is higher in some women older than 35 years who smoke more than 10 – 15 cigarettes a day or women who have multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease(cvd), such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes; a history of stroke, heart attack, or DVT; or a history of migraine headaches with aura.
  • After childbirth You should not use combined hormonal methods during the first 3 weeks after delivery because the risk of DVT is higher in the weeks. If you have additional risk factors for DVT, you should wait to use combined hormonal methods following delivery until after the first 4 to 6 weeks.
  • The risk of Deep Vein Thrombosis also slight higher in women taking pills that contains a progestin called drospirenone and also in women using the patch. However, the risk of DVT is high during pregnancy and in the weeks after childbirth than when taking drospirenone containing pills or using the patch.

Can I use combined hormonal birth control methods while I am breastfeeding?

Estrogen may affect your milk supply. If you are still breastfeeding, It is recommended that you wait until after the fifth week of delivery to start using these methods, when breastfeeding has been established well.

How can I get combined hormonal pills?

Combined Hormonal Birth control pills are available by prescription only.
What are the different types of combined hormonal pills and how are they taken?

  • 21 day pills , Take one pill at the same time each day for 21 days. Wait 7 days before starting a new pack. you will have your period.During the week you are not taking the pill
  • 28 day pills—Take one pill at the same time each day for 28 days. Depending on the brand, the first 21 pills or the first 24 pills contain estrogen and progestin. The remaining pills may be estrogen only pills, pills that contain a dietary supplement, such as iron, but no hormones or inactive pills (containing no hormones or supplements). During the days you are taking the hormone-free pills, you will have your period.
  • 90 day pills—Take one pill at the same time each day for 84 days. the last seven pills either contain no hormones or contain estrogen only. Depending on the brand, With both brands, you will have your period on the last 7 days every 3 months.

What are possible side effects of using the combined hormonal birth control pill?

Possible side effects include :

  • Nausea
  • Headache
  • Breast tenderness
  • Breakthrough bleeding
  • Breakthrough bleeding usually is a temporary side effect as the body start to adjust to a change in hormone levels. It may last longer than a few months with continuous dose pills.

What is vaginal ring?

The vaginal ring is a flexible, plastic ring that is placed in the upper vagina. It releases estrogen and progestin that are absorbed through the vaginal tissues into the body.

How can I get vaginal ring?

A health care provider must prescribe the vaginal ring, but you can insert it yourself.

How do I use the vaginal ring?

You fold the ring and insert it into the vagina. It can stay there for 21 days then remove it and wait for 7 days before inserting a new ring. During the week when the ring is not used, you will have your period. To use the ring as a continuous-dose form of birth control,you must insert a new ring every 21 days with no ring free week in between.

What are possible side effects of using the vaginal ring?
Possible side effects include the following:

  • Headache
  • Breast tenderness
  • Vaginal irritation
  • Nausea
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Breakthrough bleeding

What is the contraceptive skin patch?

The contraceptive skin patch is a small adhesive patch that is worn on skin to prevent pregnancy. The contraceptive skin patch releases estrogen and progestin, which are absorbed through the skin into the body.

How can I get the contraceptive skin patch?

A health care provider must prescribe the skin patch, but you can apply or remove the patch by yourself . The patch is less effective in women who weigh more than 200 pounds.

How do I use the contraceptive skin patch?

The patch can be worn on the, chest (except the breasts), upper back or arm,buttocks or abdomen. You wear a patch for a week at one time for a total of 3 weeks in a row. During the fourth week, a patch must not be worn, and you will have your period. After week 4, a new patch is applied and the new cycle is repeated. You apply the patch on the same day even if you still are bleeding. To use the patch as a continuous form of birth control, apply a new patch every week on the same day without skipping a week.

What are the possible side effects of using the contraceptive skin patch?

Most of the side effects are minor and often go away after a few months of use. The Possible side effects include the following:

  • Headache
  • Skin irritation
  • Breast tenderness
  • Breakthrough bleeding

What is progestin?

Progestin is a form of progesterone, a hormone which plays a role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Progestin is used in combination with another hormone called estrogen in a combined hormonal birth control pills, the vaginal ring, and skin patch. It can be used by itself in progestin-only pills and the birth control injection. The birth control implant and the hormonal intrauterine device are progestin-only forms of birth control.

How effective are progestin only pills and birth control injection in preventing pregnancy?

Progestin-only pills and the injection have about the same effectiveness as combination estrogen and progestin pills, vaginal rings, and patches.

What are progestin-only pills ?

  • Progestin-only pills contain progestin. They are available only by prescription .

How do progestin-only pills work?

Progestin-only pills, which are also called as mini-pills, have several effects in the body that help prevent pregnancy:

  • The mucus in the cervix thickens which makes it difficult for the sperm to enter the uterus and fertilize an egg.
  • They stop ovulation, but they do not do it consistently. About 40% of women who use progestin-only pills will continue to ovulate.
  • The pills thin the lining of the uterus, making it less likely that a fertilized egg can attach to the uterus.

What are the benefits of progestin-only pills?

  • These pills may reduce menstrual bleeding or stop your period altogether.
  • They do not interfere with having sex.
  • They are not associated with an increasing the risk of high blood pressure or cardiovascular disease and can even be taken if you have already have certain health conditions that prevents you from taking combination of pills, when you have a history of deep vein thrombosis or uncontrolled high blood pressure.
    They can be used immediately after childbirth when you are breastfeeding.

What are the possible risks of progestin-only pills?

Progestin-only pills may not be a good choice for women who already have certain medical conditions, such as some forms of lupus. Women who have breast cancer or have a history of breast cancer should not take progestin-only pills.

How do I take progestin-only pills?

The progestin-only pill comes in packs of 28 pills. All the pills in the pack contain progestin. Take one pill at the same time each day for 28 days and It is important to take the progestin-only pill at the exact same time each day for its maximum effectiveness. Do not skip pills even if you bleed between periods or feel sick.

What happens if I forget to take a pill?

If a pill is missed by longer than 3 hours, you should take a pill as soon as possible and use a another method of contraception (such as condoms) for the next 2 days. If vomiting or severe diarrhea occurs within 3 hours after taking a pill that means progestin may not be absorbed completely by your body. Keep taking your pills, while using a backup method until 2 days after your vomiting or diarrhea stops.

What are the possible side effects of progestin-only pills?

Bleeding may be very unpredictable. You may have short cycles of bleeding, spotting, or heavy bleeding or no bleeding . Other side effects include headaches, nausea, and breast tenderness.

What is the birth control injection?

The birth control injection is an injection of the hormone called depot medroxyprogesterone acetate. It provides protection against any pregnancy for 3 months.

How does the injection work?

The injection has several effects that work together to prevent pregnancy:

  • It effectively stops ovulation.
  • It thins the lining of the uterus, making it less likely that a fertilized egg can attach to it.
  • It thickens and decreases the amount of cervical mucus which makes it difficult for sperm to enter the uterus and fertilize an egg.

How is the injection given?

A health care provider should give the injection. The first shot can be given at any time during your menstrual cycle as long as you and health care provider are reasonably sure you are not pregnant.

How often do I need injections?

You must return to your health care provider every 13 weeks for repeated dose of injections. The repeat injection can be given up to 2 weeks late (that is 15 weeks from the last injection). If it is given more than 2 weeks late, you will need to avoid having sex or use a backup method of birth control, such as condoms, for the next 7 days.

What are the benefits of the injection?

  • The injection does not need to be taken daily.
  • No one can tell you are using birth control.
  • It does not interfere with sex or your daily activities.
  • Injection has several health benefits not that are related to birth control
  • Reduces the risk of uterine cancer if used long term
  • Gives Possible protection against pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Possible absence of periods can occur
  • Reduces the pelvic pain caused by endometriosis
  • Possible relief from certain symptoms of sickle cell disease and seizure disorders
  • Possible decrease in bleeding which is associated with uterine fibroids

What are possible risks of injection?

Bone loss might occur while using the birth control injection. When injections are stopped, most of the bone that is lost is gained back. Women who have multiple risk factors for heart disease may be at increased risk when they are using the injection as birth control. This increased risk may last for some time after the injections are stopped. Women with a history of stroke, vascular disease, or high blood pressure may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease when they are using this method.

What are side effects of the injection?

The injection may cause irregular bleeding in some . Few women report weight gain while using progestin-only birth control methods.The average amount of weight gained among women was less than 5 pounds. It takes an average of up to 10 months for pregnancy to occur after stopping the injection.

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